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2017考研英语(一)真题:完形填空题源解析

http://kaoyan.eol.cn  文都教育    2016-12-25    

  2017考研英语一完型填空真题来源是2015年的U.S. News & World Report《美国新闻与世界报道》,原标题是The Health Benefits of Hugging。主题是关于拥抱对于健康的好处,内容贴近生活,节选的片段难度一般。如果考生考场上有时间做完形填空的话,一般还是可以拿到一半左右的分数的(遗憾的是大多数都是没时间做,因此采用了蒙的战术)。

  完型填空确实是满满的套路啊,第一题选了Besides,让步词despite没有选。其次是对短语的考查第三题a host of大量的, 把短语拆开来考不太好识别!但是,这个短语在2012年的阅读真题中就出现过,在文都考研的课堂都是作为考点词汇来讲的哦。所以,要考研就必须要好好研究学习真题。

  以下是考研英语一完型填空的题源,供大家阅读参考:

  Could a hug a day keep the doctor away? The answer may be a resounding "yes!" Besides helping you feel close and connected to people you care about, it turns out that hugs can bring a host of health benefits to your body and mind. Believe it or not, a warm embrace might even help you avoid getting sick this winter.

  In a 2015 study involving 404 healthy adults, researchers from Carnegie Mellon University examined the effects of perceived social support and the receipt of hugs on the participants' susceptibility to developing the common cold after being exposed to the virus. People who perceived greater social support were less likely to come down with a cold, and the researchers calculated that the stress-buffering effects of hugging explained 32 percent of that beneficial effect. Even among those who got a cold, those who felt greater social supportand received more frequent hugs had less severe symptoms.

  "Hugging protects people who are under stress from the increased risk for colds [that's] usually associated with stress," notes study lead author Sheldon Cohen, a professor of psychology at Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania. Hugging "is a marker of intimacy and helps generate the feeling that others are there to help in the face of adversity."

  Some experts attribute the stress-reducing, health-related benefits of hugging to the release of oxytocin, often called "the bonding hormone" because it promotes attachment in relationships, including between mothers and their newborn babies. Oxytocin is made primarily in the hypothalamus in the brain, and some of it is released into the bloodstream through the pituitary gland. But some of it remains in the brain, where it influences mood, behavior and physiology.

  How hugging fits in: "When you're hugging or cuddling with someone, [he or she is] stimulating pressure receptors under your skin in a way that leads to a cascade of events including an increase in vagal activity, which puts you in a relaxed state," explains psychologist Tiffany Field, director of the Touch Research Institute at the University of Miami School of Medicine. One theory is that stimulation of the vagus nerve triggers an increase in oxytocin levels.

  The hugging and oxytocin release that comes with it can then have trickle-down effects throughout the body, causing a decrease in heart rate and a drop in the stress hormones cortisol and norepinephrine. In a 2011 study of postpartum mothers, researchers at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine in Chapel Hill found that higher oxytocin levels were associated with lower cardiovascular and sympathetic nervous system reactivity to stress. A 2005 study from the University of North Carolina found that premenopausal women who got more frequent hugs from their partners had higher oxytocin levels and lower blood pressure than their peers who didn't get as many hugs.

  Moreover, in some studies involving animals, "oxytocin has been found to diminish inflammation following acute stroke and cardiac arrest," notes Greg Norman, an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Chicago's Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience.

  There's also some evidence that oxytocin can improve immune function and pain tolerance. A 2010 study from Ohio State University found that couples with more positive communication behaviors have higher levels of oxytocin and they heal faster from wounds. More recently, a 2015 study from King's College in London found that oxytocin has analgesic effects, leading to a reduction in perceived pain intensity and lower pain ratings when participants were subjected to brief radiant heat pulses that were generated by an infrared laser.

  On the mood front, oxytocin is known to increase levels of feel-good hormones such as serotonin and dopamine, which may be why it has calming effects. "It reduces depression and anxiety, and it may have an effect on attentional disorders," Field says. In fact, a 2010 study from Ohio State University found that when socially-housed animals were treated with a pharmacological agent that inhibited oxytocin signaling, they exhibited an increase in depressive-like behavior.

  The take-home message: Just because we're in the midst of cold and flu season, there's no reason to keep your distance from people you care about. "Like diet and exercise, you need a steady daily dose of hugging," Field says. But the quality of the hugging counts, too. "If you get a flimsy hug, that's not going to do it," Field says. "You need a firm hug" to stimulate oxytocin release.

  Getting a firm, feel-good hug before going into a stressful situation (such as giving a presentation at work orgoing for a worrisome medical examination) could even help you stay calm, cool and collected during the event because your oxytocin levels are likely to stay elevated. A 2012 study from The Netherlands found that when oxytocin is administered nasally, saliva levels of the hormone stay high for more than two hours.

  Of course, you won't actually know if your oxytocin level shoots up with hugging, but don't sweat it. The hug itself is likely to make you feel supported and cared about. "I suggest not worrying too much about the oxytocin portion, since what really matters is how these interactions impact emotional well-being," Norman says. In this case, feeling is as good as believing in the power of oxytocin.

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