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2010全国硕士研究生入学统一考试(英语一)试题  中国教育在线考研频道    2010-01-09    


Section I   Use of English



Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

In 1924 American’ National Research Council sent to engineers to supervise a series of industrial experiments at a large telephone-parts factory called the Hawthorne Plant near Chicago. It hoped they would learn how stop-floor lignting__1__workers productivity. Instead, the studies ended __2___giving their name to the “Hawthorne effect”, the extremely influential idea that the very___3____to being experimented upon changed subjects’ behavior.

The idea arose because of the __4____behavior of the women in the Hawthorne plant. According to __5____of the experiments, their hourly output rose when lighting was increased, but also when it was dimmed. It did not __6____what was done in the experiment; ___7_someting was changed ,productivity rose. A(n)___8___that they were being experimented upon seemed to be ____9___to alter workers’ behavior ____10____itself.

After several decades, the same data were _11__ to econometric the analysis. Hawthorne experiments has another surprise store _12 __the descriptions on record, no systematic _13__  was found that levels of productivity were related to changes in lighting.    It turns out that peculiar way of conducting the experiments may be have let to__ 14__ interpretation of what happed.__ 15___ , lighting was always changed on a Sunday .When work started again on Monday, output __16___ rose compared with the previous Saturday and__ 17 __to rise for the next couple of days.__ 18__  , a comparison with data for weeks when there was no experimentation showed that output always went up on Monday, workers__ 19__ to be diligent for the first few days of the week in any case , before __20 __a plateau and then slackening off. This suggests that the alleged” Hawthorne effect “ is hard to pin down.

1. [A] affected [B] achieved [C] extracted  [D] restored

2. [A] at  [B]up[C] with      [D] off

3. [A]truth   [B]sight    [C] act  [D] proof

4. [A] controversial    [B] perplexing    [C]mischievous   [D] ambiguous

5. [A]requirements     [B]explanations   [C] accounts   [D] assessments

6. [A] conclude    [B] matter[C] indicate     [D] work

7. [A] as far as     [B] for fear that   [C] in case that    [D] so long as

8. [A] awareness[B] expectation  [C] sentiment     [D] illusion

9. [A] suitable[B] excessive     [C] enough  [D] abundant

10. [A] about     [B] for[C] on    [D] by

11. [A] compared  [B]shown   [C] subjected   [D] conveyed

12. [A] contrary to  [B] consistent with [C] parallel with   [D] pealliar to

13. [A] evidence [B]guidance      [C]implication   [D]source

14. [A] disputable [B]enlightening   [C]reliable    [D]misleading

15. [A] In contrast     [B] For example   [C] In consequence [D] As usual

16. [A] duly     [B]accidentally   [C] unpredictably  [D] suddenly

17. [A]failed        [B]ceased      [C]started     [D]continued

18. [A]Therefore        [B]Furthermore      [C]However     [D]Meanwhile

19. [A]Attempted       [B]tended      [C]chose     [D]intenced

20. [A]breaking [B]climbing   [C]surpassing     [D]hiting

Section II  Reading Comprehension

Part A


Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

Of all the changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage. Not only have many newspapers done away with their book-review sections, but several major papers, including the Chicago Sun-Times and the Minneapolis Star-Tribune, no longer employ full-time classical-music critics. Even those papers that continue to review fine-arts events are devoting less space to them, while the “think pieces” on cultural subjects that once graced the pages of big-city Sunday papers are becoming a thing of the past.

It is, I suspect, difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers. Yet a considerable number of the most significant collections of criticism published in the 20th century, including Virgil Thomson’s The Musical Scene (1945), Edwin Denby’s Looking at the Dance (1949), Kenneth Tynan’s Curtains (1961), and Hilton Kramer’s The Age of the Avant-Garde (1973) consisted in large part of newspaper reviews. To read such books today is to marvel at the fact that their erudite contents were once deemed suitable for publication in general-circulation dailies.

We are even farther removed from the discursive newspaper reviews published in England between the turn of the 20th century and the eve of World War II, at a time when newsprint was dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was considered an ornament to the publications in which it appeared. In those far-off days, it was taken for granted that the critics of major papers would write in detail and at length about the events they covered.1 Theirs was a serious business, and even those reviewers who wore their learning lightly, like George Bernard Shaw and Ernest Newman, could be trusted to know what they were about. These men (for they were all men) believed in journalism as a calling, and were proud to be published in the daily press. “So few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end up in journalism,” Newman wrote, “that I am tempted to define ‘journalism’ as ‘a term of contempt applied by writers who are not read to writers who are.’”

Why, then, are virtually all of these critics forgotten? Neville Cardus, who wrote for the Manchester Guardian from 1917 until shortly before his death in 1975, is now known solely as a writer of essays on the game of cricket. During his lifetime, though, he was also one of England’s foremost classical-music critics, a stylist so widely admired that his Autobiography (1947) became a best-seller. He was knighted in 1967, the first music critic to be so honored. Yet only one of his books is now in print, and his vast body of writings on music is unknown save to specialists. How is it possible that so celebrated a critic should have slipped into near-total obscurity?

21. It is indicated in Paragraphs 1 and 2 that

A arts criticism has disappeared from big-city newspapers.

B English-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews.

C high-quality newspapers retain a large body of readers.

D young readers doubt the suitability of criticism on dailies.

22. Newspaper reviews in England before World War 2 were characterized by

A free themes.

B casual style.

C elaborate layout.

D radical viewpoints.

23. Which of the following would shaw and Newman most probably agree on?

A It is writers' duty to fulfill journalistic goals.

B It is contemptible for writers to be journalists.

C Writers are likely to be tempted into journalism.

D Not all writers are capable of journalistic writing.

24. What can be learned about Cardus according to the last two paragraphs?

A His music criticism may not appeal to readers today.

B His reputation as a music critic has long been in dispute.

C His style caters largely to modern specialists.

D His writings fail to follow the amateur tradition.

25. What would be the best title for the text?

A Newspapers of the Good Old Days

B The Lost Horizon in Newspapers

C Mournful Decline of Journalism

D Prominent Critics in Memory

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