中国教育在线
中国教育在线
考研英语阅读拿高分,必须掌握细节题
2018-11-08
万学海文

  根据对多年考研英语真题的统计,在20道阅读题目中,细节题的比例约占到60%,是阅读五大题型中考查最多的,因此要想阅读拿高分,掌握细节题的做题方法尤其重要。

  所有的阅读都分为三个部分:原文、题干和选项。原文是解题的依据,题干是解题的方向,选项是解题的关键。我们要知道题干在很多时候却是我们定位和筛选正确答案的杀手锏,尤其在应对细节题时,切记:点对点对应。

  细节题根据考查内容不同可划分为以下几种类型:论点论据题,传统细节题,原因细节题,人物观点题。考生应该重点关注每一种细节类型题的特点,以找到有效的做题思路,在最后阶段更上一层楼。

  (1)论点——论据题

  论点——论据题考查学生对文章细节例证的理解,也是考纲中对论点论据要求的具体体现。一般情况下,这类题目的题干信息提供论据的细节信息,考生需要根据其定位段落,然找到论据证明的论点,最后选出与之对对应的正确选项。

  例1:Americans are willing to tolerate time-consuming security procedures in return for increased safety. The crash of Egypt Air Flight 804, which terrorists may have downed over the Mediterranean Sea, provides another tragic reminder of why. But demanding too much of air travelers or providing too little security in return undermines public support for the process. And it should: Wasted time is a drag on Americans' economic and private lives, not to mention infuriating.(2017, Text1)

  21. The crash of Egypt Air Flight 804 is mentioned to _____.

  [A] explain American’s tolerance of current security checks

  [B] stress the urgency to strengthen security worldwide

  [C] highlight the necessity of upgrading major U.S. airports

  [D] emphasize the importance of privacy protection

  根据题干中的细节信息“The crash of Egypt Air Flight 804”回文定位在上文(原文二段)中,信息描述特点可以判断出段落的结构,中心句在第一句话中,后文的细节实为论证上文观点,所以匹配信息“Americans are willing to tolerate time-consuming security procedures in return for increased safety.”,“美国人愿意忍受耗时的安检程序以确保安全”正确选项为[A]explain American’s tolerance of current security checks。

  (2)传统细节题

  传统细节题也称之为事实细节题,有两种不同的形式,其一是题干中提供部分信息,考生需要在选项中对应出剩余准确信息;其二是题干以which形式进行提问,针对某一细节进行正确错误选项的判断。无论以哪种形式出现,考生需要掌握细节表述中的同义替换的表达形式。

  例2:It has not gotten anywhere close to that, and one big reason is sticker shock. Passengers must pay $85 every five years to process their background checks. Since the beginning, this price tag has been PreCheck’ s fatal flaw. Upcoming reforms might bring the price to a more reasonable level. should: Wasted time is a drag on Americans' economic and private lives, not to mention infuriating.(2017, Text1)

  24. One problem with the PreCheck program is _________.

  [A] a dramatic reduction of its scale

  [B] its wrongly-directed implementation

  [C] the government’s reluctance to back it

  [D] an unreasonable price for enrollment

  根据题干信息“problem with the PreCheck ”可以定位至上文(文章第六段),句中表述的fatal flaw就是PreCheck program的问题的同义置换,而这个问题就是price“价格”,所以对应正确选项D, “加入这一项目的价格不合理”。答案中的表述是对原文陈述的总结陈词,这也是答案对应的一种典型方式。

  (3)因果细节题

  因果细节题是细节信息和因果关系相结合的一种考查题类型。考生需要根据题干准确定位并明确因果逻辑关系,进而解题。

  例3:Opposition to telescopes on Mauna Kea is nothing new. A small but vocal group of Hawaiians and environments have long viewed their presence as disrespect for sacred land and a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation. (2017, Text2)

  28. The construction of the TMT is opposed by some locals partly because _________.

  [A] it may risk ruining their intellectual life

  [B] it reminds them of a humiliating history

  [C] their culture will lose a chance of revival

  [D] they fear losing control of Mauna Kea

  根据题干关键信息“The construction of the TMT”、“opposed”和“some locals ”定位原文至上文(第三段),根据原文表述,一些反对者认为这些望远镜是“a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation”,可推知,是对曾经主权国家遭受占领的痛苦的提醒,对应信息可得答案B。

  (4)人物观点题

  人物观点题是根据细节信息判断人物的观点,考生需要理解定位句中具体的细节性信息,判断人物的观点倾向,随之解题。

  例4: “The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers,” wrote Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii’s last reigning monarch, in 1897. Star watchers were among the most esteemed members of Hawaiian society. Sadly, all is not well with astronomy in Hawaii today. Protests have erupted over construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope(TMT), a giant observatory that promises to revolutionize humanity’s view of the cosmos. (2017, Text2)

  26. Queen Liliuokalani’s remark in Paragraph 1 indicates ________.

  [A] her conservative view on the historical role of astronomy

  [B] the importance of astronomy in ancient times

  [C] the regrettable decline of astronomy in ancient times

  [D] her appreciation of star watchers’ feats in her time

  该题针对第一段中人物观点进行命题,从人物的言语“The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers”中找到引言想要传达的观点,第二句话中“Star watchers were among the most esteemed members of Hawaiian society.”体现对天文学家重要的社会地位,所以对应正确选项为B。

  最后再次强调:紧扣细节题干,准确判断题型,回文定位,点对点对应,注意总结正确选项的替换方式。

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